Electric vehicles have been developed in three phases, separated by periods of disinterest or stagnation. The demonstration by Gaston Planté at the Académie Française des Sciences on March 26, 1860 [1 & 2] of a lighter and more efficient lead battery boosted research in the field of batteries. A few years later, the first alkaline, rechargeable nickel-cadmium (Ni-Cd) and nickel-iron (NiFe) batteries appeared[3 & 4]. These were produced on an industrial scale at the end of the C19th. The impact on the field of electric traction was immediate. Around 1912, hundreds of thousands of electric vehicles (cars, vans, trams and buses) were running in major cities in Europe, the US and Australia. But this traction revolution was short-lived.